In popular culture, the ascetics whom Alexander is said to have met were Jains residing in the ancient university town of Takshashila (now Taxila), near Islamabad. Veteran Indologist Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar mentions two major Jain manuscript libraries in Gujranwala, Punjab which record the rich tradition of Jain scholarship in the region.
India and Pakistan, particularly Northern India and Eastern Pakistan, to some degree have similar cultures, cuisines and languages due to common Indo-Aryan heritage which span through the two countries.
The Punjab region was split into Punjab, Pakistan and Punjab, India following the independence and partition of the two countries in 1947.
Standard Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi.
India and Pakistan also share a distribution of
These languages belong to a common Indo-Aryan family that are spoken in countries across the subcontinent.
The large size of the Indian diaspora and Pakistani diaspora in many different countries throughout the world has created strong diasporic relations.
A) Kashmir 1948
At the same time India lodged complaint against Pakistan for their illegal actions in UN. India also accepted UN resolution on ceasefire in spite of its advantageous position and agreed for plebiscite in Kashmir, which laid down two conditions for holding plebiscite –
Above mentioned first conditions was never fulfilled, so there was no plebiscite there.
B) India Pakistan War 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965
C) 1971 India Pakistan War
D) Kargil War
Chronology of events
Result of war
A) Comparing economies: Who stands where
B) Where do India, Pakistan export to and import from
C) Economic Benefits which can be accrued from a good India-Pakistan Relationship
India spelt out its apprehensions over Pakistan allowing separatist Khalistani groups, including those funded by groups based in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada, to try and influence pilgrims.Of specific concern is the ‘Referendum 2020’ plan by the Sikhs for Justice group (banned by India).
The other irritant is the possible use of the corridor for drugs and arms movement; there are many routes and tunnels at the border between the two Punjabs.
The terror threat by Pakistani Punjab-based anti-India groups such as the Lashkar-e-Taiba and the Jaish-e-Mohammad is also a constant concern.
Impact of FATF listing
A) Indus Waters Treaty
B) Drawbacks of Indus Water Treaty
C) Way forward
Terrorism targeting India which is bred on Pakistani soil is a major issue which has mired the relationship.
B) Case of Kulbushan Jadhav
Kulbushan Jadhav, arrested near the Iran-Pakistan border in the Chaman area of Baluchistan region by the Pakistani establishment.
C) Sir Creek Dispute
Pak Claim-Green line & Indian claim-Red line
Challenges due to non- resolution of Sir Creek Issue
D) Siachen Dispute
Siachen Glacier Issue
Origin of trade – These measures originated in a four-point proposal for Kashmir that began to get regular airing from about 2005 from then military ruler General Pervez Musharraf. The four points were:
Recommendations to further improve trade
There are several ways in which both India and Pakistan can improve the bilateral relationship
The most critical demography that can bring about change in the India-Pakistan dynamic is the youth, because it is they who will shape the future of relations.
India and Pakistan are neighbours. Neighbours can’t be changed. Thus, it is in the better of interest of both the nations that they bring all the issues on the drawing board and resolve them amicably.
With the international community accusing Pakistan of breeding terrorism on its soil, Pakistan cannot remain in denial state and thus, needs to act tougher on terrorism-related issues.