TECHNOLOGY MISSIONS

TECHNOLOGY MISSION ON COTTON

  • The Govt. of India launched the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of “Technology Mission on cotton” in the year 2000. The objective of TMC was as under:
    1. To improve the yield and quality of cotton, particularly in respect of staple length, strength, etc. through development of better cotton varieties as well as through improved seeds, and integrated water, nutrient and pest management technologies.
    2. To increase the income of the cotton growers by reducing the cost of cultivation as well as by increasing the yield per hectare through proper transfer of technology to the growers.
    3. To improve the quality of processing of cotton, particularly in respect of trash, contamination, etc. by improving the infrastructure in the market yards for cotton and by modernizing the existing ginning & pressing factories and setting up new units.
  • To fulfil the above objectives 4 Mini Missions are established under TMC as follows:

 

 

 

TECHNOLOGY MISSION ON OILSEEDS, PULSES AND MAIZE (TMOPM)

  • The Technology Mission on Oilseeds was launched by the Central Government in 1986 to increase the production of oilseeds to reduce import and achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils.
  • Subsequently, pulses, oil palm and maize were also brought within the purview of the Mission in 1990-91, 1992 and 1995-96 respectively.
  • In addition, the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board also supplement the efforts of TMOPM by opening of newer areas for non-traditional oilseeds. IT is promoting Tree Borne Oilseeds (TBO)s.
  • The schemes implemented under TMOPM are:
    1. Oilseeds Production Programme (OPP)
    2. National Pulses Development Project (NPDP)
    3. Accelerated Maize Development Programme (AMDP)
    4. Post-Harvest Technology (PHT)
    5. Oil Palm Development Programme (OPDP)
    6. National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board (NOVOD)

A) Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize

  • In order to provide flexibility to the States in implementation based on regionally differentiated approach, to promote crop diversification and to provide focused approach to the programmes, the schemes of Oilseeds Production Programme, Oil Palm Development Programme, National Pulses Development Project and Accelerated Maize Development Programme was merged into one Centrally Sponsored Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (IPOPOM) during the 10th Five Year Plan which is being implemented with effect from 1st April, 2004.
  • The scheme is being implemented by 14 major growing States for oilseeds and pulses and 15 States for Maize and in 10 States for oil palm.

B) The ISOPOM has the following special features:

  1. Flexibility to the States to utilize the funds for the scheme/crop of their choice.
  2. Annual action plan to be formulated by the State Governments for consideration and approval of the Government of India.
  3. Flexibility to the States for introducing innovative measures or any special component to the extent of 10 per cent of financial allocation.
  4. Involvement of private sector by the State Governments for the implementation of the programme with a financial cap of 15 per cent.
  5. Flexibility for inter component diversion of funds upto 20 per cent for non-seed components only.
  6. Diversion of funds from seed components to non-seed components with the prior approval of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
  • Implementation of oilseeds production programme helped in increasing the production of oilseeds from 108.30 lakh tones in 1985-86 to 324 lakh tonnes during 2013-14. The pulses production in the country increased from 128.60 lakh in 1989-90 to 185 lakh tonnes in 2014-15.
  • Despite India being the largest producer [18.5 million tons] and processor of pulses in the world also imports around 3.5 million tons annually on an average to meet its ever-increasing consumption needs of around 22.0 million tons.
  • The area under Oil palm increased from 8,585 ha. at the end of 1992-93 to 26,178 ha. in 2008-09. Actual production of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFBs) during 2008-09 is 355,480.36 MTs yielding around 59,007.40 Metric tonnes of Crude Palm Oil (CPO).

 

JUTE TECHNOLOGY MISSION (JTM)

  • The Jute Technology Mission was launched during 2006 jointly by the Ministry of Textiles and Ministry of Agriculture to achieve the following objectives:
    1. Develop high yielding varieties to improve productivity and acceptability in markets:
    2. Improve retting practices to get better quality fibre;
    3. Transfer of cost-effective technologies to the farmers;
    4. Create strong market linkages;
    5. Expand the scope for marketing of diversified jute products within the country and abroad.
  • It has 4 mini Missions:

 

 

 

TECHNOLOGY MISSION ON COCONUT

A) Why this Mission?

  • Traditionally, coconut was grown for edible oil. It served as an ingredient for various industrial applications too. The changed food habits and availability of other cheaper edible oils both in the edible and industrial sectors, however, have brought out a drastic decline in the use of coconut oil in these areas.
  • On account of heavy imports of cheaper vegetable oil, especially of the Palmolein, the price of coconut oil has been depressed despite the large-scale price support operations undertaken. The Price Support Scheme could not make much impact in pushing up the price level and was not beneficial to the farmers as expected. In this context, it was realized that diversification of coconut derived products and value addition could only help the coconut growers in getting remunerative prices.
  • The coconut crop has also been affected by severe pests and debilitating diseases like root-wilt. It was realized that a major initiative should be started towards controlling the pests and diseases in coconut to improve its productivity and promote product diversification on better value realization from various coconut products. This will help the small and marginal farmers who depend on coconut for their livelihood to realize better returns.

 

 

  • In this context to protect the interest of the coconut growers, Technology Mission on Coconut was launched.
  • The Mission should converge and synergize all the efforts through vertical and horizontal integration of existing programmes and address the problems and bridge the gaps through appropriate programmes in Mission Mode to ensure adequate, appropriate, timely and concurrent action. This would help develop a mechanism which makes coconut farming competitive and ensures reasonable returns.

B) Goals and Objectives

  • To establish convergence and synergy among numerous ongoing governmental programmes in the field of coconut development in order to bring in horizontal and vertical integration of these programmes
  • To ensure adequate, appropriate, timely and concurrent attention to all the links in the production, post-harvest and consumption chain.
  • To maximise economic, ecological and social benefits from the existing investment and infrastructure created for coconut development
  • To promote economically desirable diversification and value addition to generate skilled employment.
  • To disseminate technologies using participatory approach through demonstration and promotion to address the gaps in a mission mode

C) Mission Approach

  • Mission approach is to evolve an approach for technology support which shall have synergy and convergence to address the existing gaps.
  • Existing schemes of Coconut Development Board and other institutes will continue with existing pattern and shall be converged in a manner that vertical and horizontal integration are achieved.
  • Issues which have not been addressed in existing schemes to meet the challenges.
  • Issues relating to development of technologies for management of insect pests and disease affected gardens, product diversification and market promotion, its demonstration and promotion for adoption.
  • Missing links in existing programmes with focused attention to achieve the goals of the mission

 

MISSION FOR INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF HORTICULTURE (MIDH)

  • A Centrally Sponsored Scheme of MIDH has been launched for the holistic development of horticulture in the countrycovering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo.
  • The scheme, which has taken take off from 2014-15, integrates the ongoing schemes of
  • National Horticulture Mission,
  • Horticulture Mission for North East & Himalayan States,
  • National Bamboo Mission,
  • National Horticulture Board,
  • Coconut Development Board and
  • Central Institute for Horticulture, Nagaland.

 

 

A) Restructured National Bamboo Mission strives for: –

  • To increase the area under bamboo plantation in non-forest Government and private lands to supplement farm income and contribute towards resilience to climate change.
  • To improve post-harvest management through establishment of innovative primary processing units, treatment and seasoning plants, primary treatment and seasoning plants, preservation technologies and market infrastructure.
  • To promote product development at micro, small and medium levels and feed bigger industry.
  • To rejuvenate the under developed bamboo industry in India.
  • To promote skill development, capacity building, awareness generation for development of bamboo sector.

 

SUGAR TECHNOLOGY MISSION

  • The Mission mode project under the Sugar Technology Mission launched in the year 1994, aims towards sharper and focussed technological upgradation in selected sugar factories to accomplish, the cost effectiveness of sugar production through improvement in plant efficiency, energy saving.
  • In addition to the above, the focus is also on improving the capital output ratio through optimisation and identification of user-friendly technologies.
  • Under this mission techno- financial support has efficaciously commercialised ways to yield benefits in sugar recovery, improvement in quality. such as Ethanol from secondary juices, low pressure extraction, etc

 

NATIONAL MISSION ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

  • Considering adverse impacts of climate change on the socio- economic development of the country, India proposed the National Action Plan on Climate change in 2008.
  • The National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) is one of the eight missions introduced to address risks associated with the impacts of climate change on Agriculture and to make appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for ensuring food security, equitable access to food resources, enhancing livelihood opportunities and contributing to economic stability at the national level.

 

 

  • Sustainable agriculture is the practice of farming using principles of conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. .  Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals- Environmental (environmental health), Social (social and economic equity) and Economic.

A) Priority Areas as indicated in NMSA under the NAPCC are;

 

 

 

NATIONAL MISSION ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

The mission started in 2014  and includes four Sub Missions:

  1. Sub Mission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE):
    • It focuses on Awareness Creation and enhanced use of appropriate technologies in agriculture & allied sectors.
    • Personnel are trained under ACABC (Agri-clinic and Agri-Business Centers schemes) and
    • DAESI (Diploma in Agriculture Extension Services for input dealers).
    • Convergence in the schemes is brought by ATMA (Agriculture technology management agency) and BTTs (Block Technology teams).
  2. Sub Mission on Seed and Planting Material (SMSP):
    • development of quality seeds
    • protection of rights of farmers and plant breeders and
    • to encourage development of new varieties of plants.
  3. Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM): to cater the needs of small and marginal farmers through technological arrangements such as Custom hiring of machines, mechanization of selected villages, subsidy for procurement of machines and equipment, etc.
  4. Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine (SMPP): To prevent crops disease using scientific and environment friendly techniques through promotion of Integrated Pest management system.

Farmers’ skill trainings and field extension as contained in all 4 sub missions will be converged with similar farmer related activities going on through ATMA (Agriculture technology management agency).

 

NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY MISSION

  • The National Development Council (NDC) in its 53rd meeting held on 29th May, 2007 adopted a resolution to launch a Food Security Mission comprising rice, wheat and pulses to increase the production of rice by 10 million tons, wheat by 8 million tons and pulses by 2 million tons by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011-12). Accordingly, a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, ‘National Food Security Mission’ (NFSM), was launched in  October 2007.

 

 

  • The Mission is being continued in 12th Five Year Plan with new targets of additional production of food grains of 25 million tons, comprising of 10 million tons rice, 8 million tons of wheat, 4 million tons of pulses and 3 million tons of coarse cereals by the end of 12th Five Year Plan.
  • The National Food Security Mission (NFSM) during the 12th Five Year Plan will have five components:
    • NFSM- Rice
    • NFSM- Wheat
    • NFSM- Pulses
    • NFSM- Coarse cereals
    • NFSM- Commercial Crops.

 

 

  • In NFSM during 2016-17, new initiatives were introduced to enhance production and productivity that has been adopted such as free of cost distribution of seed mini kits of newer varieties of pulses, creation of seed hubs, bio fertilisers and bio agent labs, technological demonstration by KVKs.
  • The commercial crops component focuses on Cropping System Approach for transfer of technology in approved states.
  • Training of farmers (4 sessions- before and during each season i.e. Kharif and Rabi) is also provided.

 

NATIONAL MISSION ON FOOD PROCESSING

  • Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI) had launched Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)- National Mission on Food Processing (NMFP) during the 12th Plan (2012-13). Further, the Govt. of India have approved continuation of the Mission during the remainder of 12th Five Year Plan (2013-17).
  • The basic objective of NMFP is decentralization of implementation of Ministry’s schemes, which will lead to substantial participation of State Governments / UTs.
  • The NMFP contemplates establishment of a National Mission as well as corresponding Missions in the State and District level.
  • NMFP is likely improve significantly the Ministry’s outreach in terms of planning, supervision and monitoring of various schemes with the following objectives
    1. To promote facilities for post-harvest operations including setting up of food processing industries.
    2. To undertake decentralization of the schemes so far operated by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) in order to take into account, the requirements suitable to the local needs.
    3. To augment the capacity of food processors working to upscale their operations through capital infusion, technology transfer, skill Up gradation and hand holding support.
    4. To support established self-help groups working in food processing sector to facilitate them to achieve SME status.
    5. Capacity development and skill up gradation through institutional training to ensure sustainable employment opportunities to the people and also to reduce the gap in requirement and availability of skilled manpower in food processing sector.
    6. To raise the standards of food safety and hygiene in order to meet the norms set up by FSSAI.To facilitate food processing industries to adopt HACCP and ISO certification norms.
    7. To augment farm gate infrastructure, supply chain logistics, storage and processing capacity. To provide better support system to organized food processing sector.
    8. This scheme was delinked from Central Government support in 2015 after 14th Finance Commission recommended more devolution of funds to States.
    9. In 2017 Central Government has come up with a new Central Sector Scheme Kisan Sampada Yojana for the period 2016-20 with Mega food Parks, integrated cold chain, agro- processing clusters etc as components.

 

NATIONAL MISSION FOR PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT

  • It is one of the six sub-schemes being implemented as sub-schemes under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
  • The National Mission for Protein Supplements was launched in 2011-12. It took up activities to promote animal based protein production through livestock development, dairy farming, piggery, goat rearing and fisheries in selected blocks.

 

NATIONAL SAFFRON MISSION

  • It is one of the six sub-schemes being implemented as sub-schemes under Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY).
  • Kashmir has the proud privilege of producing the finest quality saffron, which is famous for its colour and flavour all over the world. The Central Government launched the National Saffron Mission (NMS) in 2010-11.

 

NATIONAL MISSION ON BIO DIESEL

  • This mission was approved in 2009 with Department of Land Resource, Ministry of Rural Development as nodal agency.
  • The mission was to be implemented in 2 phases i.e. Phase I as Demonstration Project and Phase II as Self-Sustaining Expansion of Bio diesel program.
    • The Demonstration Phase (2006-07) has been taken under Mission Mode as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, implemented by State Governments. 3lakh hectare plantations of bio diesel producing non edible oilseeds species (Jatropha or Ratanjot and Pongamia or Karanji) on degraded forest land and waste land was to be assessed by TERI and then only the mission was to be finally approved.
  • The ultimate aim of the mission was supplementation of petroleum by bio diesel fuel to the extent of 20% by the end of phase II program (2011-12).
  • The target was not achieved due to lack of sufficient Jatropha seeds to produce bio diesel.
  • The target of 20% bio fuel blending has been set to be achieved by 2017 which is yet to be achieved.

 

GREEN REVOLUTION – KRISHONNATI YOJANA

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  • It is an umbrella agricultural programme encompassing 11 schemes. Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved the continuation of this Umbrella Scheme from 2017-18 to 2019-20. It aims to bring together 11 agricultural schemes besides their effective monitoring. The schemes are:
    • Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
    • National Food Security Mission (NFSM)
    • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
    • Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM)
    • Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM).
    • Submission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE)
    • Sub Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP)
    • Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine (SMPPQ)
    • Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES)
    • Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC)
    • National e-Governance Plan – Agriculture (NeGP-A).

 

 

  • These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity and better returns on produce.
  • These schemes are aimed at creating and strengthening of infrastructure for production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied products.

 

TECHNOLOGY MISSION ON LITERACY

A) National Digital Literacy Mission

  • The Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (DISHA) or National Digital Literacy Mission (NDLM) Scheme has been formulated to impart IT training to 52.5 lakh persons, including Anganwadi & ASHA workers and authorised ration dealers in
    all the States/UTs so that non-IT literate citizens become IT literate so as to enable them to actively & effectively participate in the democratic and developmental process and also enhance their livelihood.

B) National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology

  • NMEICT has been envisaged as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme to leverage the potential of ICT in teaching and learning process for the benefit of all the learners in higher education institutions in any time anywhere mode.
    ​It has two major components: providing connectivity, along with provision for access devices to institutions & learners; & content generation.

C) Nano Technology Mission

  • The Government of India, in 2007, approved the launch of a Mission on Nano Science & Technology (Nano Mission) with an allocation of Rs. 1000 crore for 5 years.
  • The Department of Science and Technology is the nodal agency for implementing the Nano Mission. Capacity-building in this area of research will be of utmost importance for the Nano Mission so that India emerges as a global knowledge-hub in this field.

 

TECHNOLOGY MISSIONS ON INDIAN RAILWAYS

  • TMIR is a consortium of Ministry of Railways, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Science and Technology and Department of Heavy Industry  on an investment sharing model for taking up identified railway projects for applied research and use on Indian Railways.
  • It will also monitor progress of research projects of the existing Railway Research Centre, Kharagpur & other 4 upcoming Railway Research Centres sanctioned in Budget 2015-16. Thus, Railways’ investment in applied research activities will be fruitfully converted to technology development for actual use in railway working.

A) Technology Mission on Railway Safety

  • A Technology Mission has been launched to focus attention and drive modern technologies of monitoring, control, communications, design, electronics and materials for railway safety. It will help to initiate and incubate design & development projects of significant national importance.
  • Its objective is to develop & adopt state-of-the-art safety, control and design technologies defined by needs related to Indian conditions. It will formulate and implement projects aimed towards achieving higher throughput, lower cost of transmission per unit & safer train movement.

B) Technology Mission on Technical Textile

  • The Mission was announced in 2007 to address the “major constraints for improving production & consumption of technical textiles”.
  • In 2008-09, 4 Centres of Excellence were set up to catalyse industry support & build capacity in the area of Geotech (geotextiles used in civil engineering applications), Protech (personal & property protective clothing), Meditech (medical textiles) and Agrotech (specialized agriculture use).

 

TECHNOLOGY MISSION ON WATER AND CLEAN ENERGY

A) Water Technology Initiative Program

  • It was initiated in August 2007 aims to promote R&D activities aimed at providing safe drinking water at affordable cost and in adequate quantity using appropriate Science and Technology interventions evolved through indigenous efforts.
  • Since quality is the main consideration of safe drinking water, processes which imply nano-material and filtration technologies have been focused.
  • The initiative also includes the pilot testing of credible number of products and referencing of selected technologies to the social context of the application region.
  • In pursuance of directives of Hon’ble Supreme Court, Technology Mission on Winning, Augmentation and Renovation (WAR) for Water has been launched in August 2009 to undertake research-led solutions, through a coordinated approach, to come out with technological options for various water challenges in different parts of the country.

B) Aims and Objectives

This pro-active India – centric ‘solution science’ endeavour aims to strengthen the R&D capacity and capability to develop the technological solutions for existing and emerging water challenges facing the country.

  1. Promote national and collaborative developmental Research to address prevalent and emerging water challenges
  2. Capacity building of research professionals and water managers
  3. Evolve methodology for development of customised solutions suited to social context
  4. Develop synergies with line departments at Central/ State level for last mile connectivity of the research findings
  5. Evolve S&T based sustainable models with industry and recommend appropriate policy inputs
  6. Conduct techno- economic-social analysis of technologies and their suitability in specific context
  7. Support Impact Assessment Studies/ development of Research Packages/ Technology Status Reports and other documentation required by different users/ agencies
  8. Upscaling and Replication of technologies/ solutions to credible scale.

C) Scope and Thrust Areas

  • This demand-oriented user centric initiative includes development research in laboratories as well as application research in field.
  • The scope of initiative covers the entire value chain of R&D right from water oriented basic and applied research, pre competitive technology development , technology based classification & assessment of technology options, pilot-demonstration of technology leads from laboratories and academic institutions assessment of available technology options to evolve a basket of technology options and mounting of technically, socially, environmentally and eventually affordable convergent solutions based on evolving, novel as well as known technologies suited to socio-economic context.
  • It also envisages to nurture enabling activities such as human and institutional capacity building such as fellowships for researchers, training of water managers to enable identify and select most appropriate technology option, promoting centres of excellence for water research and nurturing nascent water technologies for last mile connectivity etc.
  • The thrust areas for initiative dynamically evolve based on need for technology-based solution from the users, requirement of R&D inputs by stakeholders, assessment of S&T requirements to enable achieve technology prowess in water sector etc.
  • The thrust areas specific to call for proposals are articulated in call document uploaded on DST website periodically.

 

CLEAN ENERGY RESEARCH INITIATIVE

  • It was initiated in January, 2009 the initiative aims to develop national research competence to drive down the cost of clean energy through pre-competitive translational research, oriented research led disruptive innovations & human and institutional capacity development.

A) Aims and Objectives

CERI has been envisaged to –

  1. Support upstream end of research, where knowledge, more advanced than the current practice in the industry must have a space.
  2. Develop India centric innovations developed around user needs and forge collaboration between industry and academics as much as possible and gain value for such collaborations.
  3. To develop critical mass of researchers to meet requirement of R&D professionals for clean energy.

B) Scope and Thrust Areas

  • The scope of initiative includes support for solar oriented fundamental research for solar devices, sub-systems and systems. The initiative supports feasibility assessment of fresh ideas/ concepts, including various emerging and disruptive technologies, for their potential conversion into useful technology/ product.
  • The envisaged thrust areas are –
    • Solar energy materials
    • Solar energy devices (for user direct load applications)
    • Storage devices
    • Power electronics for grid synchronization
    • Capacity building to create critical mass for solar energy research
    • Development of systems/ subsystems for solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, storage smart energy grid and building energy efficiency.
    • Convergent Solar thermal technology solutions (25 kw to 1 MW)
    • Convergent Solar Photo Voltaic Technology solutions

 

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